“At Mainz the sky shone red like blood for many nights, and other portents were seen in the heavens. One night a cloud climbed up from the north and another from the south and east, and they exchanged bolts of lightning.

They met overhead and fought a great battle.

All who saw this were amazed and afraid and prayed.

Several men gathering in the harvest in the district of Worms were found dead because of the heat of the sun.

Many were also drowned in the Rhine.”

From a chronicler in the monastery at Fulda, AD870

(Tr T. Reuter, Manchester University Press, 1992)